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Knowledge, attitude and practice of home management of diarrhoea among mothers of under-fives in Samaru, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Victoria Nanben Omole, Teyil Mary Wamyil-Mshelia, Grace Awawu Nmadu, Nafisat Ohunene Usman, Emmanuel Ayuba Andeyantso, Farouk Adiri
January-April 2019, 13(1):19-25
Background: Diseases associated with diarrhoea rank second among the top five diseases which account for childhood morbidities and mortalities in developing countries. Home-based management of diarrhoea is a globally recommended approach to reversing this trend and averting preventable deaths among under-five children. Aim: To explore the knowledge of, attitudes to and the practice of home management of diarrhoea (HMD) among mothers of under-five children. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Samaru, Kaduna State, Nigeria, among mothers of under-fives, selected by multistage sampling method. Data were collected using interviewer-administered, close-ended, structured questionnaires, and then cleaned for errors and electronically analysed. Results: The awareness of the concept of HMD was universal. Diverse methods were mentioned by respondents, ranging from recommended to inappropriate options. The knowledge of oral rehydration salts was high (93.7%), with the main source of information being health facilities. However, only 34.4% of the respondents would resort to using ORS for HMD, and the overall practice of any form of HMD was only 64%. Conclusion: The knowledge of both recommended and inappropriate methods of HMD was demonstrated among respondents. Their awareness of ORS was high. However, the actual practice of HMD was relatively low. The promotion of positive HMD methods of fluid and electrolyte replacement; continuous, nutritious feeding and zinc supplementation for children with diarrhoea among mothers and caregivers is recommended.
  14,957 1,276 3
Waiting time and patient satisfaction: Survey of patients seeking care at the general outpatient clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital
Daprim Samuel Ogaji, Margaret M Mezie-Okoye
September-December 2017, 11(3):148-155
Background: Improving efficiency in patient flow and the satisfaction of patients attending outpatient clinics may require paying close attention to the actual time spent by patients at the various service points during their visit to the hospital. This study assessed the time clients spent at various service stations, the level of their satisfaction with the time spent and the relationship between waiting time and satisfaction for patients seeking care at the General Outpatient Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Methods: A total of 422 adult patients seeking care at the clinic were selected by time-limited systematic random sampling and followed through all their engagements within the hospital. Details of the time spent at each service station and clients' satisfaction with the time spent were collected using record sheet and a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Data were analysed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20. The statistical effect sizes and confidence intervals of measured outcomes were reported. The P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: More of the patients were female (58.6%), married (65.3%) and regular visitors to the clinic (72.6%). The mean time of 83 min was spent on the movement to the hospital and further 274 min to conclude all relevant activities in the course of seeking general practice service in the hospital. The average time of consultation with the doctors was 19 min, whereas the longest mean waiting times of 77 and 50 min were spent while waiting to access radiological and laboratory services, respectively. More patients were satisfied with the time they spent consulting the doctors (93%) or waiting to have their vital signs checked by the nurses (83%) than they were with the time taken to access radiological (30%) and laboratory services (47%). There was a significant inverse relationship between the level of patient satisfaction and the duration of time spent at the service stations. Conclusion: The waiting time for patient accessing general outpatient care in the teaching hospital is long and could be a major contributor to negative patient experiences. There is a need for system redesign, establishment of patients' appointment scheduling and other interventions by service providers that will ensure efficient and effective management of patient flow, timely access to health services and an overall improvement of patient experience with the general outpatient encounter.
  12,867 1,015 5
Assessment of workplace hazards in mortuaries in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Kingsley E Douglas, SS Peterside
September-December 2016, 10(3):102-110
Background: Mortuary workers face various hazards in course of carrying out their duties. These hazards may be ignored by employers and employees alike. Identifying these hazards in time before they become risks that cause accidents and even death is recognized mode of prevention and control. This study was to assess the workplace hazards in mortuaries located in Port Harcourt City Area. Methods: Following ethical approval, this descriptive cross-sectional study recruited 100 eligible respondents from private and public mortuaries, respectively, balloted for from six known and registered mortuaries in Port Harcourt city. Respondents answered pre-tested, close-ended, structured, self-administered questionnaires which probed sociodemographics, occupational history, knowledge and behaviour towards hazards encountered while at the workplace. There was also an adapted checklist used for the walk-through survey of the study sites' identification and quantification of hazards. Data obtained were analysed and presented using descriptive and analytical statistical tools. Results: The study had mostly male (95%) respondents with only 15% having acquired tertiary education. The majority (94%) of the hazards respondents were exposed to were mechanical slips, trips and falls. The majority (93%) of respondents had safety training on the hazards associated with the mortuary, while 11% used personal protective equipment (PPE) always. Conclusion: Hazards abound in mortuaries in Port Harcourt City even though most workers had received training on hazards and hazards prevention. There was also a poor use of PPE. It is recommended that health education, provision, enforcement and monitoring of the use of PPE be intensified among this group of workers.
  12,779 874 4
The unending threat of Lassa fever in Nigeria, what can be done; what should be done
Ballah Akawu Denue, Mary Stephen, Isabelle Dauvoux
September-December 2017, 11(3):113-121
Background: Lassa fever is known to be endemic in West African region, and Nigeria bears the most burden of the disease and case fatalities. It is worrisome and disheartening for an emerging infectious disease such as Lassa fever, to linger for 49 years but surge in incidence in a country such as Nigeria, endowed with both human and natural resources. Methods: The sources of the information presented was obtained through detailed review of literatures using Medline, Ovid and PubMed (search terms Lassa fever, Arenaviridae and viral haemorrhagic fever), case analysis, and surveys undertaking from the field, and relevant websites (such as Nigeria Center for Disease Control, Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Results: The possibility of a large outbreak in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan Countries characterised by dearth of laboratory facilities for prompt diagnosis and personal protective equipment (PPE) and its potential use as a biological weapon has also raised the profile of this disease. Health education of the communities, improved funding through budgetary allocation for surveillance, prompt case management including laboratory facilities, training of health personnel, isolation of cases, barrier nursing, contact tracing, provision of antiviral drugs and vaccines that is effective against this disease and supply of PPE is not only necessary but also expedient in the light of the threat due to Lassa fever. Conclusion: The weak health-care delivery system in Nigeria, would continue to impede effective control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases including Lassa fever. There is an urgent need to provide resources to effectively control and prevent Lassa fever.
  11,101 1,719 1
Chronicles of challenges confronting HIV prevention and treatment in Nigeria
Adejoke Adijat Joseph, Oluyemi Adesoji Joseph, Bukola Lateefat Olokoba, Olatunji Aliu Olatunji
September-December 2020, 14(3):100-113
Background: Antiretroviral therapy reduces mortality and morbidity amongst people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, improves their quality of life and reduces the potential to infect others. The goal of National Agency for the Control of AIDS is to achieve and sustain an AIDS-free Nigeria by 2030 hinged on its strategic framework. Achieving this goal is threatened by certain identified challenges. Aim: This study is to review the contents of the national HIV and AIDS strategic framework in a bid to identify the challenges confronting its full implementation in the management of HIV in Nigeria. Methods: Several published articles on HIV prevalence, factors influencing trend and spread, and sociodemographics of the affected were reviewed as well as three federal government of Nigeria national HIV and AIDS strategic framework. Articles were sourced from online indexes such as Medline; sampling about 60 peer-reviewed articles from which information relevant to the topic were retrieved. Publication by relevant bodies on HIV and AIDS was likewise reviewed, and relevant information was retrieved from them. Results: Challenges identified include AIDS-related stigmatisation and discrimination, socio-cultural norms and practices, especially denial of women to inheritance and widow inheritance with its resultant feminisation of poverty and female genital mutilation, reduced funding following the withdrawal of donor agencies, anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer bias, bureaucratic and structural problems, as well as negative attitude of healthcare professionals. Conclusion: The study concludes that achieving an AIDS-free Nigeria with zero new infection and zero. AIDS-related stigmatisation by 2030 will require mitigating against the aforementioned challenges.
  10,010 474 -
Awareness and uptake of human papillomavirus vaccines among female undergraduate students: Implications for cervical cancer prevention in South-South, Nigeria
Chibianotu Ojimah, Omosivie Maduka
September-December 2017, 11(3):134-140
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection found most commonly among sexually active adolescents and young women. HPV vaccine is available in Nigeria. However, very few persons have been vaccinated. This study, therefore, aimed to assess the level of awareness of HPV infection and its vaccine uptake among female university students in Rivers State. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between July and October 2015 in three Universities in Rivers State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling was used to identify the study participants. Results: A total of 780 eligible females were recruited into the study. About 262 (33.6%) had heard of HPV infection and 203 (26%) had heard of HPV vaccines. Among those who had heard of HPV vaccines, 148 (72.9%) were aware that the vaccine could protect against HPV infection while 97 (47.8%) were aware that the vaccine could protect against cervical cancer. Only 40 (5.1%) of study participants had been vaccinated with HPV vaccine. HPV vaccine uptake was significantly predicted by respondent's marital status (adjusted OR [AdjOR] = 0.061; 0.015–0.246), parity (AdjOR = 5.855; 1.433–23.923) and knowledge about HPV (AdjOR = 7.918; 3.062–20.475). Conclusion: Awareness of HPV infection and HPV vaccine among female undergraduates in Rivers State is poor. There is, therefore, need for health promotion interventions that address this gap as part of cervical cancer control activities.
  9,657 745 5
Uterine fibroids: Experience with 100 myomectomies in Orlu, South East Nigeria
VI Ndububa
September-December 2016, 10(3):124-129
Background: Uterine fibroid, over the years, has remained a major gynaecological problem in Nigeria, and although various treatment modalities exist, abdominal myomectomy has remained the mainstay of treatment for those women who want to preserve their reproductive capacity. Most of them, however, present late when the fibroids are either huge or associated with complications. Aim: The aim of this study was to present experience with abdominal myomectomy vis-a-vis its outcome and also to show the symptoms at presentation. Methods: This is a study of the first hundred abdominal myomectomies carried out by the author in Imo State University Teaching Hospital and St. Damian's Catholic Mission Hospital both in Orlu, Imo state, Nigeria. The myomectomies were carried out between August 2007 and September 2013. Data were recorded in a pre-surgery-prepared pro forma administered by the author prospectively. The data were analysed using SPSS version 15 and the results presented in descriptive, tabular and graphical forms. Results: The age of the hundred women who had myomectomy ranged from 20 to 49 years. The most common symptoms these women presented with were menorrhagia (69%), abdominal mass (63%), dysmenorrhoea (33%) and infertility (33%). The sizes of the uterus on abdominal palpation ranged from not palpable (5%) to as much as 36 weeks gestation. The major myomectomy-associated complications in this study were blood transfusion rate of 86%, post-myomectomy pyrexia (44%), severe haemorrhage (25%) and post-myomectomy anaemia (24%). There was one mortality due to severe haemorrhage. Conclusion: Menorrhagia and abdominal mass are the chief symptoms of the fibroid. Severe haemorrhage still remains a major threat to successful abdominal myomectomy and efforts should be geared towards reducing this.
  9,356 581 4
Scalp and hair disorders at the dermatology outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital
Olusola Olabisi Ayanlowo
September-December 2017, 11(3):127-133
Background: Scalp and hair disorders are common and of immense health and cosmetic significance. Alopecia, the most common presentation of scalp disorders, has been found to impact negatively on the quality of life of patients. Aim: This study aimed to document the spectrum of scalp and hair disorders, with the age and sex distribution, at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) between 2004 and 2012. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who presented primarily with hair and scalp disorders. Data was obtained from clinic records and patients clinic notes; and included biodata, diagnoses, age and sex distribution. Results: During the study period, 860 patients (5.3%) of the 16,160 patients presented primarily with scalp and hair disorders. Both children and adult patients are seen at the clinic. Patients seen ranged from 3 months to 80 years of age. More males (67.2%) than females (32.8%) were seen; with ratio 2.05:1. Tinea capitis, dermatophyte infection of the scalp, was the most common disorder (30.5%), with male preponderance in the first decade of life. Chronic inflammatory scalp disorders such as acne keloidalis, dissecting folliculiis and folliculitis decalvans were found predominantly in adult males; while alopecia areata, scalp psoriasis and pityriasis amiantacea were noted to be more common in adult females. Conclusion: This study noted high frequency of chronic inflammatory scalp disorders found predominantly in males. However, disorders of hair care practices such as traction alopecia found commonly in community surveys were not frequent presentations in our practice. Further to determine the epidemiologic factors, aetiology and clinical characteristics of the common scalp and hair disorders will be necessary.
  8,958 513 3
Urethral prolapse: An important differential diagnosis of bleeding from the vulva in pre-pubertal African girls
Blessing Imuetinyan Abhulimhen-Iyoha, CA Oguejiofor
May-August 2017, 11(2):96-98
Urethral prolapse is the abnormal protrusion of the urethral mucosa through the external urethral meatus. It is a rarely diagnosed condition as most cases will be misdiagnosed as sexual abuse. If diagnosed, however, medical treatment with follow-up will usually suffice. If this fails, or in the presence of complications, surgical management may be employed. The most common presenting feature is urogenital bleeding. Genital bleeding in a pre-pubertal child is alarming to parents. Their first impression is that of a sexual abuse resulting in the suspicion of all adult males in the surrounding environment. The condition is worsened by a scenario in which the child is either too little to give an account or where she points accusing fingers to some adults. We report a case of bleeding from the vulva from urethral prolapse masquerading as suspected sexual abuse from an unknown adult.
  8,711 512 -
The burden of blindness and visual impairment according to age and gender: A case study of Emohua local government area, Nigeria
AA Onua, C Tobin-West, I Ojule
May-August 2016, 10(2):73-78
Background: Visual impairment and blindness pose different degrees of public health and social problem among the different age groups and sex. The problems are worse in the developing countries due to ignorance and lack of adequate eye care services. Public information systems, epidemiological data, and funding for blindness programs are often lacking and have hampered comprehensive blindness control programs in the rural communities, a fact that underscores the importance of this study. Aim: To estimate the burden of blindness and visual impairment according to age and gender in Emohua local government area (LGA), Nigeria. Methods: A population-based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between October 11, and November 29, 2014, in Emohua LGA. Three hundred and fifty-three inhabitants were recruited in the study through a multistage sampling method. Demographic data, detailed ocular examinations were recorded and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: The study participants were 164 males and 189 females (male:female = 1:1.2). The prevalence of bilateral blindness is 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-2.5%) and unilateral blindness 2.5% (95% CI: 1.2-3.4%). Those who had various degrees of visual impairment in both eyes constituted 6.2% (95% CI: 5.7-8.5%) and 9.1% had unilateral visual impairment (95% CI: 8.7-9.7%). Cataract was the leading cause of bilateral blindness, accounting for 60% of cases, glaucoma (20%), and corneal opacity (20%). Conclusion: Blindness and visual impairment are more common in the older age groups and female gender in Emohua LGA. Government and nongovernmental organizations should step up comprehensive eye health care programs to realize the goals of Vision 2020.
  8,421 559 -
Oral health status, knowledge of dental caries aetiology, and dental clinic attendance: A comparison of secondary school students in the rural and urban areas of Lagos
Modupeoluwa Omotunde Soroye, Cyril Ilemobade Adegbulugbe
May-August 2016, 10(2):42-49
Background: Dental caries is painful, expensive to treat and can harm nutrition and overall health. Good oral hygiene, regular utilization of dental health facilities, dietary habits and knowledge of determinants of dental caries play important role in the prevalence of dental caries among school children. Tooth loss, sequelae to untreated dental caries is higher among urban school children than their rural counterparts. Aim: To compare and determine the oral health status and investigate dental clinic attendance and knowledge of students in rural and urban secondary schools in Lagos on the aetiology of dental caries. Methods: Using stratified and proportionate to size sampling techniques, a random sample of 598 students aged 12-26years from rural and urban local government areas were examined for dental caries and gingivitis. Questionnaires were administered to elicit information on frequency of consumption of refined sugar, parents' educational status, knowledge of dental caries aetiology and dental clinic attendance. The decayed, missing and filled tooth index (DMFT) was measured according to the WHO caries diagnostic criteria for epidemiological studies and the clinical oral hygiene status measured with the gingival index (GI) of Loe and Silness, Plague index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between urban and rural students in caries experience in permanent teeth (mean DMFT = 0.26 in urban areas; 0.11 in rural areas), More of the parents of students in the urban schools are educated than those in rural schools. The decayed (D) and missing (M) components were higher in the rural area, indicating a high level of restorative treatment need among the students in rural area. The urban participants had better oral hygiene and the gingival index was higher among rural students. Dental clinic attendance was higher among the urban participants than the rural participants. Conclusion: The students in urban secondary schools had better oral health status and make use of dental facilities more than their rural counterparts. The knowledge of aetiology of dental caries is poor among both the rural and urban school students.
  8,023 609 2
Use of face shields during Covid-19 pandemic
Richard C Echem
September-December 2020, 14(3):93-94
  7,985 491 -
Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different sites of a tertiary hospital in South-South Nigeria
Kenneth Emuren, Best Ordinioha
May-August 2016, 10(2):79-84
Background: The risk of nosocomial infection is increasing due to the increasing number of patients with immune depression. Good ventilation is one of the methods used to reduce the ambient air levels of the causative agents, but this is rarely observed in Nigeria as hospital designs used to shut out the inclement weather in temperate countries are copied without many modifications, and without adequate provisions to constantly power the mechanical ventilation mechanisms. This study tested the microbiological air quality at different areas of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital to ascertain the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the ambient air. Methods: The study was carried out in July 2015 in randomly selected inpatient wards, outpatient clinics, and clinical laboratories of the hospital. The assessment was carried out by exposing Petri dishes containing the appropriate culture media for about 30 min at a convenient place in each of the nine study sites. Thereafter, the plates were covered and immediately transferred to the laboratory for incubation at 37°C, for 24-48 h, for bacteria; and at room temperature, for 5-7 days, for fungi. The number and types of bacteria and fungi in the cultures were determined at the end of the incubation period. Results: There were detectable bacteria and fungi in the ambient air of all the study sites. The mean bacterial count ranged from 9.5 colony forming unit per cubic meter (CFU/m 3 ) in the urology ward to 199.33 in the HIV clinic, with a mean of 80.0 CFU/m 3 , while the mean fungal count ranged from 10.5 CFU/m 3 in the surgery outpatient clinic (SOC) to 23.5 in the Anatomical Pathology Laboratory (APL), with a mean of 16.9 CFU/m 3 . Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were the most common bacteria in the SOC; Klebsiella was predominant in the immunization clinic; Escherichia coli were the most common in the APL, while bacillus was most frequently isolated in the gynecology ward. The fungi cultured from the study sites include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Trichophyton, Candida, and Rhizopus. Unlike the bacteria count, the fungal count increased in all the study sites at the end of the working day. Conclusion: The number and types of bacteria and fungi cultured from the study sites have the potential to cause ill health. Corrective actions are therefore needed.
  7,440 674 4
Knowledge and perception of healthcare providers towards palliative care in Rivers State, Nigeria
Gracia Ker Eke, Geraldine U Ndukwu, Nkem S Chukwuma, Bassey B Diepiri
September-December 2017, 11(3):156-160
Background: Palliative care, a multidisciplinary approach to specialised medical care, focuses on improving the quality of life for both the patient and the family. It increases their satisfaction and improves clinical outcome. Its concept, however, is relatively new in Nigeria, with services mainly limited to patients who attend the tertiary hospitals. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and perception towards palliative care among health-care providers in Rivers State. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2012 at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, among participants of a workshop on Hospice and Palliative care. Participants were healthcare providers from within and outside the hospital, including doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, medical and nursing students. A structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on knowledge of palliative care and awareness information. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: There were 114 respondents and this comprised of 29 (25.4%) males and 85 (74.6%) females, giving a male-to-female ratio of 1:3. They were mainly doctors (44.7%) and nurses (44.7%). Majority (88%) had previously heard of palliative care. Sixty-four (56.1%) of them heard of it in a hospital setting from doctors/nurses, 37 (32.5%) from friends/family and 10 (8.8%) in school. Forty-six (40%) respondents believed that nurses should be the ones to provide palliative care services, while 32 (28%) believed the doctors should. Less than half (47.4%) were aware of the interdisciplinary facet of palliative care. Ninety-five (83.3%) respondents believed that terminally ill patients should benefit from palliative care services, while 17.5% believed that patients with diabetes should. More doctors (80%) than nurses (47%) rightly identified the components of palliative care. Conclusion: Healthcare providers had insufficient knowledge concerning the interdisciplinary nature of the palliative care team, potentials beneficiaries and components of palliative care.
  7,478 607 5
The effect of the application of different rates of herbicides on the residual level of the herbicides and their metabolites in harvested maize cobs
Joyce Chinyere Best-Ordinioha, EA Ataga, Best Ordinioha
September-December 2017, 11(3):122-126
Background: The use of herbicide in weed control has grown significantly in Nigeria in recent years. Most of the applications are indiscriminately carried out by illiterate farmers, and therefore pose a significant threat to the environment, crop yield and human health. This study assessed the effects of different application rates of the herbicides on the residual levels of the herbicides and their metabolites in harvested maize cobs. Methods: The study was carried out in a plot of land at the University of Port Harcourt in 2013 and 2014, using a randomised complete block design with three replicates, and plot size of 2 m × 2 m. N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine was used to prepare the experimental plots, while different application doses of Primextra dual gold (2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-isopropylamino-1,3-5-triazine and 2-chloro-N-(ethy-6-methy(phenyl)-N-(2-methoxyl-1-methylethyl acetamide) were applied to the plots, after planting the maize. The control plot was not treated with the herbicides. The residual levels of the herbicides and their metabolites in the cobs harvested from the plots were tested using gas chromatography, with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector. Results: The residue of the herbicides and their metabolites were barely detectable in the harvested maize cobs when the herbicides were applied at or below their recommended dose, but noted at up to 0.09 ppm, when applied at twice the recommended dose. The residues were also noted in some of the cobs harvested from the control plot, at a mean concentration of 0.0033 ppm, which is significantly <0.012 ppm recorded in the treated plot. Conclusion: The residual concentrations of herbicides and their metabolites in harvested crops increased with increasing application dose of the herbicides. Proper education of farmers is, therefore, needed to safeguard the environment and public health.
  7,520 538 4
Deliberate self-harm with multiple lacerations in a 23-year-old depressed Nigerian male
Charles I.K Iwunze, Chukwuma U Okeafor, Benjamin M Kejeh
September-December 2017, 11(3):170-174
Deliberate self-harm is an extreme reaction to psychological stress. It remains the strongest known risk factor for imminent suicide. There is a dearth of information on the extent of risk, especially in this environment. Psychiatric treatment should commence as soon as the patient is clinically stable. This is to report a case of deliberate self-harm with multiple lacerations in a depressed 23-year-old male with a history of cannabis abuse. The case is a 23-year-old male student with a history of cannabis abuse and depression following psychological stressors who sustained multiple self-inflicted deep lacerations to his neck and phallus. He had multidisciplinary management by the surgical and psychiatric teams. Reducing the risk of suicide by psychotherapy and treatment of underlying psychiatric conditions should be the mainstay of management in cases of deliberate self-harm beyond treatment of injuries sustained, irrespective of their severity.
  7,496 346 -
Prevalence of anaemia in the antenatal booking population at Ahmadu Bello University teaching hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria
Polite I Onwuhafua, Ijeoma C Ozed-Williams, Abimbola Omolara Kolawole, Marliya S Zayyan, Joel Adze
January-April 2018, 12(1):23-27
Background: Anaemia has been associated with poor materno-foetal performance among pregnant women in Nigeria. The objective, therefore, of this study is to determine the prevalence of anaemia at the time of antenatal booking and the associated factors in the hospital. Methods: Four hundred and seventy-seven women were studied prospectively over 3 months in the antenatal booking clinic, and their characteristics compared with their haemoglobin (Hb) levels. Results: Age range was 15–46 years, and mean Hb concentration was 10.76 g/dl. Nearly 53.05% of the study population had Hb <11.0 g/dl, but only 20.76% had Hb <10.0 g/dl. Nearly 1.89% had severe anaemia (Hb <8.0 g/dl) while 20.12% had Hb of 12.0 g/dl or more. The strongest association was last obstetric event occurring <1 year before current pregnancy (χ2 6.17, odds ratio 3.97 and P = 0.01). Older women (35 years or more) had a higher prevalence (30.95%) than younger women (19.77%). Only two of the 15 teenagers (13.33%) were anaemic. Six women (1.26%) had sickle cell Hb and it seemed the presence of Hb C tempered the anaemia. Parity and social class were not significant associations. With a mean booking gestational age of 22.49 weeks for the group, 77.77% of the anaemic women booked earlier than 28 weeks. Only two (2.03%) booked later than 34 weeks. Conclusion: Anaemia is still highly prevalent in the society, and the existing mechanisms for its correction should be reassessed for effectiveness and adequate utilisation in the antenatal clinic. Most anaemic women booked early, therefore, allowing enough time for correction before delivery.
  7,298 537 1
Adolescent sex education: Prevalence, sources and perspective among senior secondary school students in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State
Nneka Gabriel-Job, Joyce Okagua
May-August 2019, 13(2):47-52
Background: Adequate sex education is an essential tool for all adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of adolescents who have had access to sexuality education, their source and their perspective to sexuality education in Obio/Akpor local government area (LGA) of Rivers State. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive school based study. A multistage sampling method was used to select four secondary schools (two public and two private) in Obio/Akpor LGA of Rivers State. The study participants were recruited by simple balloting from the senior secondary classes. The study instrument was a pretested semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed with Epi Info version statistical programme. In all cases, a value of P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Results: One thousand one hundred and ten participants were recruited for the study, ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with a mean age of 15.5 ± 1.6 years. Majority (91.9%) of the participants have been taught sex education. More males and students from public schools had not been taught sex education. Sources of sex education were school (58.3%) and parents (13.5%). Most (74.0%) of the students preferred a school-based sex education taught by their teachers and 96.5% supports sex education to be incorporated into the school curriculum. Furthermore, majority of the students acknowledged that sex education will help them prevent sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS, pregnancy and help them relate better with the opposite sex. Conclusion: It is concluded that every child irrespective of the gender, school type be given access to adequate sex education. Parents and teachers are encouraged to ensure that the appropriate age-specific information is given to the children to prevent them from accessing wrong information from unreliable sources. There is need to incorporate sex education into the secondary school curriculum.
  7,270 504 -
Medical outreach activities, a means to an end
Ndubuisi Eke
September-December 2016, 10(3):85-85
  4,220 3,366 -
Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer
Firdous Ansari
September-December 2020, 14(3):95-99
Background: According to the World Health Organization, human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer, which is the fourth most common cancer in women, with an estimated 266,000 deaths and 528,000 new cases in 2012. Usually, HPV infections cause no symptoms but it is also reported that 99% cervical cancer cases are linked to genital infection with HPV and it is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. Aim: The aim of the study is to review the literature to describe what research has been done and what can be the future prospect. Methods: To search for the literature search engine, PubMed and Google were searched by inputting different key words, for example, HPV and cervical cancer. Studies considered were broadly associated with either HPV and cervical cancer or its worldwide scenario and socio-economic status. Results: Considered studies showed that Genital HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, whereas a considerable number i.e., 90% cases of cervical cancer, HPV was detected. The largest proportion attributable to HPV reported were about 75%, 70%, 70% and 60% of vaginal cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, vulvar cancers and penile cancers, respectively. Various identified risk factors as well as different suggested methods are also described to protect against HPV. Conclusion: We may conclude that as it is sexually transmitted infection and causes no symptoms, so proper care should be taken in intimate hygiene management.
  7,138 437 -
Aetiological factors and dimension of tympanic membrane perforation in Benin City, Nigeria
Johnson Ediale, Paul R. O. C Adobamen, Titus S Ibekwe
May-August 2017, 11(2):55-59
Background: Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is a recognised cause of hearing loss in our environment. The integrity of the TM can be compromised by varying aetiological factors which are often preventable. TM perforation occurs in different dimensions which tend to influence the degree of hearing loss. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the aetiological factors and dimensions of TM perforation among adolescents and adults in Benin City. Methods: This was a 1-year prospective study carried out from 1st July 2014 to 30th June 2015 at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Consecutive patients with TM perforation were examined using a hand-held otoscope as well as Firefly video otoscope and subsequently had an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and ImageJ software. Results: One hundred and forty-eight patients with TM perforation in either or both ears were studied. There were 67 (45.3%) males and 81 (54.7%) females; ratio of 1:1.2. Ages ranged from 10 to 64 years, with a mean age of 34.5 ± 15.7 years. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) was the major cause of TM perforation in this study, 148 (74.0%). The small perforation was predominant, 54 (55.1%) and 48 (47%) in the right and left ears, respectively while the central anterior perforation, 93 (46.5%) occurred commonly. Conclusion: Central and small perforations were the predominant TM perforation while CSOM was the major cause of TM perforation.
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Pattern of cerebrospinal fluid analysis in children above the neonatal age as seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital
Awopeju Abimbola Temitayo Oluwajenyo, Yaguo-Ide Lucy Eberechukwu
September-December 2016, 10(3):86-90
Background: Bacterial meningitis is a potent cause of morbidity and mortality in the paediatric age group. The aim of this study was to review the results of analysis the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from children above the neonatal age who were suspected to be having meningitis and to also determine the susceptibility pattern of these isolates. Methods: A descriptive retrospective study of results of CSF culture reports taken from paediatric patients aged 1 month to 16 years with clinical suspicion of bacterial meningitis at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014. The CSF samples were subjected to macroscopic examination, white blood cell count, Gram's stain and culture. Organisms isolated were characterised by standard procedure and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done according to the Clinical Laboratories Standard Institute guidelines. Data were retrieved from laboratory record books and analysed using Microsoft Excel sheet. Results are presented as tables and pie chart. Results: Five hundred and seventy-four samples were received from children who were above the neonatal age (28 days). Of these, 329 were male (57.3%), 240 were female (41.8%), while in 5 (0.9%) of the samples, the sex was not indicated. Only 10 (1.7%) samples were positive for culture. Of these, Gram-positive cocci were the most common organisms, of which Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent, being 7 (70%), followed by Escherichia coli (20%), while the least prevalent organism was β-haemolytic streptococci (10%). The organisms all exhibited resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Ceftazidime exhibited 100% sensitivity against E. coli isolates. Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin exhibited good sensitivity among all the bacteria isolates that were cultured. Conclusions: There was a low yield of bacteria in CSF culture of paediatric patients at the University of Port Harcourt. The third-generation cephalosporins are still effective in bacterial meningitis in paediatric patients.
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Adolescent sexual behaviour in Pokhara Submetropolitan Municipality, Nepal
Sandip Pahari, Bishwas Acharya, Hoshiar Singh Chauhan
September-December 2018, 12(3):117-121
Background: Risky sexual behaviour among adolescents is an emerging problem in Nepal. Aim: To assess the sexual behaviour and media influence and determine the association of watching porn movies and sexual activity with sociodemographic factors among adolescents in Pokhara submetropolitan municipality, Nepal. Methods: An institution-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 302 adolescents of higher secondary schools in Pokhara submetropolitan municipality, Nepal, using self-administered questionnaire technique. Data were collected and analysed using SPSS software version 21. Results: Out of 302 respondents, 81 (27%) had sexual intercourse, whereas 221 (73%) did not have sexual intercourse. There was a statistical association between exposure to porn movies with age (P = 0.038), caste (P ≤ 0.05), gender (P < 0.001), monthly family income (P < 0.001), monthly pocket money (P < 0.001) and time spent on watching computer (P < 0.001). Presence of television in personal bedroom of the adolescents was significantly associated with the number of times they watched the porn movies (P = 0.013). Involvement in sexual intercourse was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), type of family (P = 0.008), gender (P = 0.001), monthly family income (P = 0.014), monthly pocket money (P < 0.001), exposure to porn movies (P < 0.001) and presence of boyfriend/girlfriend (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Sexual behaviour among adolescents was found to be high. Reproductive and sex education should be introduced into the school curriculum to minimise and control premarital and unsafe sex.
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Determinants of the age at sexual debut among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor local government area of Rivers State, Nigeria
Nneka Gabriel-Job, Eme Olukemi Asuquo, David Ibidabo Alabere
May-August 2018, 12(2):81-87
Background: The age at sexual debut is an important public health issue as it determines the onset of exposure to sexual and reproductive health diseases. Early sexual debut increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS, teenage pregnancy and all the associated sequelae. This study determined the age at sexual debut and associated factors among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor local government area (LGA) of Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional school-based study was carried out among eight secondary schools in Obio/Akpor LGA of Rivers State between May and July 2017. Using the multistaged sampling method, 426 students aged 10–19 years were recruited. A semi-structured pretested self-administered questionnaire was used. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Comparison of means was done using the Student's t-test, while the test for association between subgroups was carried out using the Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was done to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents and to identify independently associated factors. Results: Of the 426 students studied, 223 (52.3%) of them were males and 203 (47.7%) were females, giving a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. The mean age of respondents was 13.8 ± 1.7 years. The prevalence of sexual intercourse was 8.0%, with a mean age at sexual debut of 13.0 ± 2.3 years. The factors identified to influence the age at sexual debut include alcohol use (odds ratio [OR]: 13.088, confidence interval [CI]: 6.038–28.374, P = 0.000), not living with both parents (OR: 7.008, CI: 3.289–15.164, P = 0.000), peer pressure (χ[2] = 17.007, P ≤ 0.001) and sexual abuse (χ[2] = 7.472, P = 0.006). Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual intercourse is 8.0% among adolescents in Obio/Akpor LGA. Early sexual debut exists with no gender difference on the timing of sexual debut. Peer pressure, sexual abuse, alcohol use and absence of both parents in a child's life are risk factors to early sexual debut. An early and comprehensive sex education is necessary to protect children from initiating sexual intercourse early in life.
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Reminiscing the recent incidence of monkeypox in Nigeria: Its ecologic-epidemiology and literature review
Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Amos Dangana, Iduda Ojeamiren, Anthony Uchenna Emeribe
January-April 2018, 12(1):1-9
Monkeypox (MKPX) is a rare viral zoonosis which was first discovered in a laboratory in Denmark in 1958. This critical review involved literature search of data on the history of MKPX virus (MKPXV), its emergence and re-emergence, molecular virology, global epidemiology and geographical distribution, the recent outbreak of MKPX in Nigeria, diagnostic and treatment considerations using Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus. Findings from this review revealed that the first human cases of MKPX were diagnosed and differentiated from smallpox in the early 1970s. Since this period, several cases have been reported in rural, rainforest areas of West Africa and the Congo Basin, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Midwest of the United States of America, South-Sudan, Central African Republic, and recently in Nigeria. The outbreaks in the non-endemic areas of the US and Sudan occurred due to zoonotic transmission of the virus into these nonrain forested areas. The geographical spread of MKPXV until date has renewed research efforts in unravelling environmental factors that favour ecological niche of this pathogen. This study aimed to review both biotic and abiotic factors that are responsible for the expansion of the ecological niche and geographic distribution of human MKPX in Nigeria. It appears that environmental factors, conflict and globalisation are responsible for the increasing risk of animal-human transmission through direct contact between the cutaneous or mucosal lesions of the infected animal and the compromised skin barrier of a human, and the consumption of poorly cooked-infected flesh. Lymphadenopathy is a distinguishing clinical feature of MKPX from other pox-like illnesses. Laboratory diagnosis of anti-poxvirus antibodies in an unvaccinated person with a clinical history of severe illness and total body rash is suggestive of MKPX infection. The lack of sufficient data to guide the identification of potential reservoir hosts, and public health intervention strategies/surveillance, inadequate training for health workers, unavailability and inaccessibility of suitable diagnostic assays, vaccines and anti-viral treatment could be some of the reasons cases of MKPX re-emerge when not successfully contained, especially in endemic regions.
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